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    【发布日期】:2010-03-25

    TI: Cultivation of Volvariella volvacea and Pleurotus flabellatus in sub-montane and low hills sub-tropical zone of Himachal Pradesh.

     

    AU: Suman-BC; Sharma-BK

     

    SO: Journal-of-Mycology-and-Plant-Pathology. 1999, 29: 2, 250-251; 4 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The cultivation of V. volvacea and P. flabellatus under natural conditions was studied at the Horticultural Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan, Himachal Pradesh, India, during 1996-98. Cultivation of V. volvacea was done during May-September (temperature range 30-42oC) and that of P. flabellatus March-April and September-October (temperature range 20-30o). V. volvacea was cultivated on paddy straw. From one bed approximately 3.5-4.0 kg of mushrooms were harvested in a month; there were 4 flushes and each flush appeared at 5-10 day intervals with an average yield of 750 g to 1 kg per flush, per bed. P. flabellatus was cultivated on wheat straw. There were 5 flushes, each appearing at an interval of 6-7 days in a cropping period of 40-45 days. From one flush an average of 400-500 g of fruit bodies were harvested.

     

    GE: India-; Himachal-Pradesh

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20000307806

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Cloning of the cbhI and cbhII genes involved in cellulose utilisation by the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Jia-J; Dyer-PS; Buswell-JA; Peberdy-JF

     

    SO: Molecular-and-General-Genetics. 1999, 261: 6, 985-993; 35 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Volvariella volvacea is cultivated on substrates rich in cellulose and has been shown to produce a family of cellulolytic enzymes. A PCR-based strategy was adopted to clone genes involved in cellulose utilization, using degenerate primers designed to amplify conserved catalytic domain sequences of cellobiohydrolases (CBHs). PCR with these primers produced 2 DNA fragments (GenBank accession numbers AF156693 and AF156694, respectively) with sequence similarity to the cbhI and cbhII gene families detected in Trichoderma, Phanerochaete and Agaricus species. Full-length clones of these genes were obtained from an EMBL3 genomic library, and RACE-PCR was used to verify the presence of introns. The cbhI homologue has a coding region of 1722 bp, containing 2 introns, generating a 536 amino acid polypeptide product. The cbhII gene has a coding region of 1693 bp, containing 5 introns, and gives rise to a 470-amino acid polypeptide product. Northern and PCR analyses were used to study the expression of the genes. These revealed that transcripts of both genes were induced on medium containing cellulose, with cbhI being expressed more strongly than cbhII, but were repressed on medium containing glucose.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 19991611978

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: RNA composition changes in Volvariella volvacea during cold-shock stress.

     

    AU: Chen-MJ; Tang-Q; Yan-PL; He-DM; Lin-XF; Feng-ZY; Guan-SM; Pan-YJ; Jong-SC

     

    SO: Micologia-Neotropical-Aplicada. 1998, 11: 1-7; 7 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Changes in RNA composition in response to cold-shock at 4C in the mycelium of V. volvacea, a cultivated mushroom of the tropics and subtropics, were examined. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that molecular size increased, reached maximum induction during the 2nd hour post-shift, and subsequently decreased. RNA began to degrade in the 8th hour. Using the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, results indicated that cold-shock induced a new pattern of gene expression.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 990305992

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Cold shock gene isolation in Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Chen-MingJie; Tan-Qi; Yan-PeiLan; Ling-XiaFen; Pan-YingJie; Chen-MJ; Tan-Q; Yan-PL; Ling-XF; Pan-YJ

     

    SO: Mycosystema. 1998, 17: 4, 327-330; 9 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Analysis by differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) showed that changes in gene expression occurred in mycelium of V. volvacea during low temperature stress.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 991603641

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Viability of Volvariella volvacea strains stored in liquid nitrogen.

     

    OT: Viabilidad de cepas de Volvariella volvacea conservadas en nitrogeno liquido.

     

    AU: Perez-R; Salmones-D

     

    SO: Revista-Mexicana-de-Micologia. 1997, publ. 1998, 13: 78-80; 17 ref.

     

    LA: Spanish

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Results of the recovery of 11 strains of V. volvacea stored in liquid nitrogen are given. For cryopreservation, the mycelia were inoculated onto Setaria geniculata, Sorghum almum or Sorghum vulgare [S. bicolor] seeds and placed in cryovials in contact with a cryoprotectant solution of 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 30, 60 or 90 min. The strains were maintained in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. The samples were then thawed out and mycelial recuperation evaluated by daily observations under the microscope. The S. geniculata seeds with 60 or 90 min of contact with DSMO proved to be the best treatments for strain cryopreservation.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 990302002

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Regeneration of protoplasts from hyphal strands of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Reyes-RG; Eguchi-F; Iijima-T; Higaki-M

     

    SO: Journal-of-Wood-Science. 1998, 44: 5, 401-407; 44 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: A series of experiments on the preparation and regeneration of protoplasts from hyphal strands of Volvariella volvacea were conducted with the aim of optimizing the conditions for its efficient regeneration. One commercial (Vvc1) and two wild (EAAC-0001 and EAAC-0002) strains of V. volvacea from the Philippines were used and subjected to varying conditions to determine the most efficient means for regeneration of their protoplasts. The effects of age and type of strain, pH, type and concentration of osmotic stabilizer, enzymatic composition, treatment time, temperature, reciprocal frequency during enzymatic lysis of the cell wall, and centrifugation conditions were investigated. Results showed that the three strains of V. volvacea had varying responses in terms of yield, size, and ability of their protoplasts to regenerate into the protoplast regeneration medium. Among the three strains, EAAC-0002 had the highest rate of regeneration. The 5-day-old culture of V. volvacea, when subjected to a combination of 2% Novozyme 234 and 0.2% chitinase in 0.6 M mannitol (pH 6.0) for 3 h at 30C, 90 strokes/min and centrifuged at 1100 g for 10 min, produced an efficient yield of protoplasts with a relatively high regeneration rate.

     

    GE: Philippines-

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 990600880

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Physiological considerations for efficient mycelial colonization of Philippine strains of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Reyes-RG; Eguchi-F; Iijima-T; Higaki-M

     

    SO: Journal-of-Wood-Science. 1998, 44: 5, 408-413; 18 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The nutritional and physical requirements for the efficient mycelial colonization of Volvariella volvacea were elucidated with the percentage mycelial colonization and density as references. This investigation was limited to the evaluation of two commercial strains (designated Vvc1 and Vvc2) and two wild strains (designated EAAC-0001 and EAAC-0002) of V. volvacea from the Philippines with the aim of providing baseline data on their physiological requirements. The four strains of V. volvacea had varying preferences for carbon. Vvc1 preferred polysaccharides (starch and cellulose), whereas Vvc2 grew luxuriantly at a relatively rapid rate in sugar alcohol (sorbitol). The two wild strains preferred starch as a carbon source. In terms of nitrogen utilization, soytone, peptone, and glycine supported efficient mycelial colonization of the four strains. The vitamin utilization test revealed that ascorbic acid, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are good sources. The mycelial growth performances of the strains were also evaluated on six dehydrated mycological media. Efficient colonization of Vvc1, Vvc2, and EAAC-0002 with dense mycelial growth was noted in mycological agar. EAAC-0001, on the other hand, grew more efficiently in malt extract agar. The Philippine strains of V. volvacea grew luxuriantly when incubated at 35C and pH 8.0 under dark and sealed conditions. Moreover, the relatively higher moisture content (70%) of the oolong tea leaf formulation favourably stimulated efficient mycelial colonization. Under optimum physiological conditions, Vvc1, Vvc2, and EAAC-0002 were fast-growing strains, whereas EAAC-0001 was a moderately growing type.

     

    GE: Philippines-

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 990600881

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Suppression of cell cycle progression by a fungal lectin: activation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

     

    AU: Liu-WingKeung; Ho-JCK; Ng-TzeBun; Liu-WK; Ng-TB

     

    SO: Biochemical-Pharmacology. 2001, 61: 1, 33-37; 22 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The antiproliferative activity of a fungal lectin (VVL), isolated from Volvariella volvacea, was studied against a battery of tumour cell lines. Cell proliferation was decreased by VVL doses of 0.32-4 M, with S180 cells being the most sensitive. When S180 cells were incubated for 48 h with VVL at 0.32-0.8 M, prominent blebs on the cell surface and large vacuoles in the cytoplasm were observed under fluorescence spectroscopy. VVL did not exert ribosome-inactivating activity or induce changes in the expression of cyclins A, D1 and E. It did activate the expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. VVL arrested cell proliferation by blocking cell cyle progression in the G2/M phase.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20013012225

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Factors affecting cellulase production in Volvariella, the straw mushroom.

     

    AU: Urmila-Gupta; Roma-Kalra; Phutela-RP; Gupta-U; Kalra-R

     

    SO: Mushroom-Research. 1996, 5: 1, 29-32; 11 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: In an evaluation of 3 strains of V. volvacea and 2 strains of V. diplasia, the highest cellulase activity in terms of carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, cellobiase and extracellular proteins was exhibited by V. diplasia strain IIHR. For obtaining the maximum cellulolytic potential of this strain, cellulose was the best carbon source and peptone and sodium nitrate were the best N sources. The optimum temperature and pH for cellulase production were 35C and 5-6, respectively, with an incubation period of 7 days.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 960311999

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Producing single-cell (microbial) protein on lignocellulosic or other food and agricultural wastes.

     

    AU: Chang-ST; Khor-GL; Ng-LC; Ong-KC; Quimio-TH; Stanton-WR; Wang-WCW; Steinkraus-KH

     

    SO: Handbook-of-indigenous-fermented-foods. 1996, Ed. 2, 655-695; 3 pp. of ref.

     

    PB: Marcel Dekker Inc.; New York; USA

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Mushroom cultivation and single cell protein production using agricultural plant wastes in developing countries is described. Topics presented include: cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach for developing countries; mushrooms and single-cell (microbial) protein; production of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species); Growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on waste paper; production of Volvariella volvacea; straw mushrooms; and, edible Termitomyces and their culture in the laboratory.

     

    GE: Developing-Countries

     

    PT: Miscellaneous

     

    IB: 0-8247-9352-8

     

    AN: 961302105

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Analysis of equilibrium moisture content and drying constant of mushroom (Volvariella volvaceae).

     

    OT: Analisis kadar air kesetimbangan dan konstanta pengeringan jamur merang (Volvariella volvaceae).

     

    AU: Alamsyah-R; Mahdar-P; Syah-I

     

    SO: Warta-IHP. 1995, 12: 1-2, 14-17; 9 ref.

     

    LA: Indonesian

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Knowledge of the equilibrium moisture content (Me) and drying constant (K) of mushrooms is useful for drying and storage. Me and K models were designed for V. volvaceae [V. volvacea]. The models were functions of drying temperature and designed based on infinite slab and sphere geometry. Experiments were conducted at 35, 40, 45 and 50C, on blanched and unblanched samples and at drying air velocities of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s. The models based on infinite slab geometry gave the best results.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 960305160

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Investigation of nitrogen-fixing organisms in straw media for three fungi.

     

    AU: Zheng,-SL; Yang,-PY; Lin,-XJ; Hong,-LQ

     

    SO: Zhongguo-Shiyongjun-Edible-Fungi-of-China. 1988, No. 5, 14-16.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: The presence of nitrogen-fixing organisms in straw on which Agaricus bitorquis, Volvariella volvacea or Pleurotus spp. were grown, was investigated. The numbers of organisms found were in the range 6.6 X 104 to 4.4 X 108/g straw. Acetylene-reducing-activity reached 7 X 10-5 nmol jar-1 h-1. Growth of the nitrogen-fixing organisms and nitrogen fixation were increased in the presence of the fungi.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C920720

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Preliminary study of cellulolytic enzymes of higher basidiomycetes.

     

    AU: Chen,-Y; Li,-LN

     

    SO: Zhongguo-Shiyongjun-Edible-Fungi-of-China. 1987, No. 1, 7-9; 9 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    AB: Data on enzyme contents are tabulated for Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sapidus, P. florida, Hericium erinaceus, Polyporus versicolor [Coriolus versicolor], Ganoderma lucidum, G. capense, Lentinus edodes [Lentinula edodes], Collybia velutipes, Auricularia auricula, Armillariella tabescens [Armillaria tabescens], Tremella fuciformis, Marasmius androsaceus, Schizophyllum commune, Volvariella volvacea and a Trichoderma species.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C493083

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: A study on superoxide dismutase of the fruiting body of the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Li,-JZ; Zhu,-ZQ

     

    SO: Journal-of-Fujian-Agricultural-College. 1987, 16: 3, 220-223; 6 ref., 3 fig.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    AB: Analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes in V. volvacea using horizontal slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed 1-2 isozyme bands at the spore stage and 2-4 bands during stipe elongation and at maturity. The SOD isozymes in the stipe seemed to be the most sensitive to fruiting body senescence. The number of SOD isozyme bands in fruiting bodies during stipe elongation and at maturity after storage at 4C for 4 days remained the same in both volva and stipe, but increased from 2 to 5-8 in the pileus after storage. The possible mechanism of senescence and its relation to changes in SOD isozyme during storage is discussed.

     

    GE: China-; Fujian-

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C495876

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Yield performance of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella sp.) under natural climatic conditions in Orissa.

     

    AU: Pani-BK; Naik-RP

     

    SO: Environment-and-Ecology. 1998, 16: 4, 968-969; 5 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Seasonal productivity of paddy straw mushroom under natural climatic conditions in Orissa, India, was studied. Significantly higher yields of Volvariella volvacea (15.9% biological efficiency) and V. diplasia (15.3% BE) were recorded in July (25.1-35.1C and 73-92% RH). The period from March to October was suitable for mushroom cultivation. No fruiting bodies appeared during December-January. Significantly lower mushroom yields (4.2-4.9% BE) were found in February.

     

    GE: Orissa-; India-

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 990304742

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Comparative utilization of lignocellulosic components of paddy straw by Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Datta-S; Chakravarty-DK

     

    SO: Indian-Phytopathology. 2002, 55: 3, 308-309; 8 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Rice straw cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin degradation, and laccase and cellulase production by P. sajor-caju and V. volvacea were investigated. Rice straw was inoculated separately with both fungi, and samples of colonized substrate were studied. The presence of laccase and cellulase in P. sajor-caju enabled the fungus to efficiently utilize lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and to degrade lignin more actively until the end of the spawn run phase. During fructification, cellulose and hemicellulose degradation intensified. V. volvacea utilized cellulose and hemicellulose throughout the cropping phase, but was unable to utilize lignin at any stage due to the absence of laccase. P. sajor-caju, more efficient in substrate colonization due to a more active hydrolytic enzyme system, gave higher mycelium yield than V. volvacea.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20023193379

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Induction of laccase activity in the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Chen-ShiCheng; Ma-DengBo; Ge-Wei; Buswell-JA; Chen-SC; Ma-DB; Ge-W

     

    SO: FEMS-Microbiology-Letters. 2003, 218: 1, 143-148; 34 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Volvariella volvacea, strain V14, produces multiple forms of extracellular laccase when grown in submerged culture in a defined medium with glucose as sole carbon source, and on cotton waste 'compost' representative of the conditions used for industrial-scale mushroom cultivation. In liquid culture, enzyme synthesis is associated with the onset of secondary growth, and is positively regulated by copper (up to 200 M CuSO4) and by various aromatic compounds. In solid-state systems, only low levels of laccase are detectable during the vegetative growth phase but enzyme activity increases sharply at the onset of fruiting and during sporophore development.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20033035399

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible mushrooms.

     

    AU: Fu-HuiYin; Shieh-DenEn; Ho-CT; Fu-HY; Shieh-DE

     

    SO: Journal-of-Food-Lipids. 2002, 9: 1, 35-46.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The antioxidative potency of commercially available mushrooms in Taiwan was studied. The free radical scavenging activities of these mushrooms were demonstrated by using the DPPH method. The antioxidative activities of ethanol extracts of various mushrooms in an emulsified maize oil (o/w) system at 60C were compared. The addition of test compounds in maize oil emulsions significantly extended the induction period of lipid oxidation. The order of inhibitory activity of mushroom extracts on oxidation in emulsion system was Agaricus bisporus > Hypsizigus marmoreus > Volvariella volvacea > Flammulina velutipes > Pleurotus eryngii > Pleurotus ostreatus > Hericium erinaceus > Lentinula edodes. In the thermal oxidative stability test, using lard, the order of antioxidative activity of test materials showed similar tendencies, except for the extract of Lentinula edodes.

     

    GE: Taiwan-

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20023177741

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Complex use of wastes containing cellulose.

     

    AU: Li-RiQiang; Xi-YuYing; Cao-ZhiLiang; Han-WenHui; Liu-JiQing; Li-RQ; Xi-YY; Cao-ZL; Han-WH; Liu-JQ

     

    SO: China-Environmental-Science. 2002, 22: 1, 24-27; 9 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: In order to enhance the efficient use of complex waste products and reduce its polluting ability, corn straw powder and distiller's grains were fermented by some bacteria (Trichoderma, Rhizopus nigricans, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus bisporus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Volvariella volvacea, Memnoniella echinata, Stachybotrys atra, Torula allii, Myrothecium melanosporum, Chaetomium dolichotrichum, Gonytrichum macrocladium, Chaetomium atrosporum, Trichoderma viridae, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum) which were able to degrade cellulose and lignin. The results revealed that the protein content of the fermented corn straw powder and distiller's grains increased significantly which reached 17.04 and 29.64% for pure protein and 731.2 and 64.0%, respectively, higher than non-fermented control, and 18.94 and 30.86% for crude protein and 576.4 and 65.3%, respectively, higher than non-fermented control. Higher activities of cellulase, hemicellulase and amylase were determined in the fermented products so that the byproducts can be used as a protein source of feeds.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20023035242

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: A novel and potent ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius.

     

    AU: Ye-XY; Ng-TB

     

    SO: Biochemical-and-Biophysical-Research-Communications. 2002, 293: 2, 857-861; 19 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: A ribonuclease (RNase), with an N-terminal sequence different from those of ribonucleases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, and Volvariella volvacea, was purified from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. The N-terminal sequence of P. pulmonarius RNase manifested homology to a portion of the sequences of ribosome inactivating protein abrin-b, abrin-c, and abrin-d, and Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulator. The ribonuclease was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sepharose, and Mono S. It displayed a molecular mass of 14.4 kDa in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease exhibited an activity of 25 114 U/mg on yeast tRNA. The highest ribonucleolytic activity was demonstrated toward poly C, followed by poly A, and then by poly G. There was no activity toward poly U. The optimal pH for its activity was 7 and the optimal temperature was 55 C. It inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.33 nM.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20023083880

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Purification of an antitumor-active, branched (1 3)-beta-D-glucan from Volvariella volvacea, and elucidation of its fine structure.

     

    AU: Kishida,-E; Sone,-Y; Misaki,-A

     

    SO: Carbohydrate-Research. 1989, 193: 1, 227-239; 16 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C988970

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Amino acid analysis of edible and medicinal fungi introduced into Hebei Province.

     

    AU: He,-JC; Li,-YY

     

    SO: Zhongguo-Shiyongjun-=-Edible-Fungi-of-China. 1989, No. 5, 15-17.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    AB: Amino acid analyses are presented for 20 species of medicinal and edible fungi introduced into Hebei, and for waste material of 4 species. The species include Pleurotus florida, P. sajor-caju, Auricularia auricula, Lentinus edodes [Lentinula edodes], Ganoderma lucidum and 7 strains of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C971490

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins during morphogenesis of the basidiocarp of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Chang-ST; Chan-KY

     

    SO: Mycologia. 1973, 65: 2, 355-364; 18 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    GE: Hong-Kong

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 730311236

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Isolation of a new cardiotoxic protein from the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Lin-J-Y; Jeng-T-W; Chen-C-C; Shi-G-Y; Tung-T-C

     

    SO: Nature,-UK. 1973, 246: 5434, 524-525; 3 fig., 2 graphs, 1 tab.; 8 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: A toxic protein, named volvatoxin, was isolated from V. volvacea by extraction with cold 0.8 N acetic acid, 0.016 M mercaptoethanol and 0.001 M EDTA. A single major protein peak was obtained by chromatography, and designated volvatoxin A, which had an LD50 of 1.23 mg/kg-1 body weight of mice. The biological effects of the protein included lysis of human group 0 red blood cells at 2 mu g/ml-1, the causing of a writhing reaction when administered intraperitoneally into mice, and ventricular systolic arrest in isolated toad hearts at 0.1 mg/ml-1. In gel filtration 2 components were distinguished, volvatoxins A1 and A2, in the ratio 1:3. These components were virtually nontoxic when tested separately but the toxicity of a mixture increased to a max. when A1 and A2 were present in the same ratio in which they occurred in volvatoxin A.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 741309779

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Antigen analysis of the cultivated paddy straw mushroom of Thailand, Philippines and Ceylon.

     

    AU: Samarawira-I; Fernando-ST

     

    SO: Annals-of-Botany. 1973, 37: 150, 371-374; 13 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Antigen analysis was carried out in strains CI52, CI53 and CY101 from Thailand, Philippines and Sri Lanka, respectively. No antigenic differences between the strains were observed. The strains had similar morphological characteristics and it was concluded that they were similar to Volvariella volvacea var. masseei.

     

    GE: Sri-Lanka

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 731605558

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Studies on the padi mushroom (Volvariella volvacea). VII. Competition between different isolates in vivo.

     

    AU: Graham-KM

     

    SO: Malaysian-Agricultural-Research. 1975, 4: 3, 223-228; 13 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: Malay

     

    AB: Significant yield reductions were observed when spawn of single-basidiospore isolates from Hong Kong, Indonesia, Sarawak, Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia were combined in equal proportions in various combinations by pairs in beds of oil palm pericarp waste + shredded paper compost. Incubation periods were prolonged but the effect on the number of harvest days was not significant. No apparent mutual inhibition was exhibited between any of these isolates in vitro.[See also HcA 47, 6676.]

     

    GE: Malaysia-

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 770351364

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Amino acid composition of the protein of some edible mushrooms grown in synthetic medium.

     

    AU: Purkayastha-RP; Chandra-A

     

    SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India. 1976, 13: 2, 86-89; 22 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Mycelial proteins of 5 edible mushrooms, Agaricus campestris, Lentinus subnudus, Calocybe indica, Volvariella volvacea and Termitomyces eurhizus, were estimated after growing in a liquid culture medium. Protein content was from 14 to 27% in DM. Eleven amino acds were identified in A. campestris and L. subnudus by chromatography of acid hydrolysates. Thirteen amino acids including 2 amides were detected in V. volvacea and C. indica and 10 amino acids including 2 amides were detected in V. volvacea and C. indica and 10 amino acids were identified in T. eurhizus. Leucine, threonine, tyrosine and alanine were predominant in A. campestris, L. subnudus, C. indica and V. volvacea, respectively. T. eurhizus was a better source of alanine than V. volvacea.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 771454746

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: The microbiology and enzymology of wheat straw mushroom compost production.

     

    AU: Fermor-TR; Wood-DA

     

    SO: Straw-decay-and-its-effect-on-disposal-and-utilization. 1979, 105-112; 15 ref.

     

    PB: John Wiley & Sons.; Chichester; UK

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The aerobic microflora of mushroom composts produced by a commercial two-phase system (Formula 2) was compared with that of a rapidly prepared compost (RPC) containing no animal manure. Commercial composts took 14-21 days to prepare whereas RPC could be inoculated with spawn after 5 days. The microbial succession in RPC was altered by environmental control and by adding a carbohydrate supplement (e.g. sucrose) at the start of composting, which encouraged a build-up of thermophilic bacteria. Actinomyces (fire fang) also appeared much earlier at the expense of undesirable mesophilic fungi. The levels of activity of the extracellular enzymes cellulase, xylanase and laminarase corresponded with changes in the number of microorganisms.

     

    PT: Miscellaneous

     

    AN: 800387332

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: [Investigational techniques].

     

    AU: Harris-D; Grossbard-E; Smith-C; Sapsed-E; Smith-RN; Long-PA; Harper-SHT; Lynch-JM; Cheshire-MV; Mundie-CM; Wood-DA; Anderson-JM; Grossbard-E (Editor); Grossbard-E (ed.)

     

    SO: Straw-decay-and-its-effect-on-disposal-and-utilization. 1979, 337 pp.

     

    PB: John Wiley & Sons.; Chichester; UK

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Measurement of oxygen uptake by straw microflora using an oxygen electrode. Harris, D. 265-266 Measurement of mechanical resistance to shearing force, as an estimate of decomposition in straw. Harris, D.; Grossbard, E.; Smith, C. 267-269 The continuous observation by autoradiography of the decay of 14C labelled rye straw incubating undisturbed on the soil surface. Grossbard, E.; Sapsed, E. 271-275 Techniques for the measurement of cellulose breakdown in soil. Smith, R.N.; Long, P.A. 277-279 Problems of assessing the degree of aerobic decomposition of straw. Grossbard, E. 285-288 The kinetics of the decomposition of straw in relation to the production of phytotoxins. Harper, S.H.T.; Lynch, J.M. 289-291 Changes in the nitrogen content of herbicide-treated straw, a potential parameter of microbial colonization. Harris, D.; Grossbard, E. 293-297 The continuous monitoring of the evolution of 14CO2 from 14C labelled rye straw, treated with herbicides, incubating undisturbed on the soil surface. Grossbard, E. 299-303 Techniques used in the study of decomposition of straw in soil. Cheshire, M.V.; Mundie, C.M. 305-307 A method of assessing biomass of Agaricus mycelium in wheat straw mushroom compost. Wood, D.A. 309-310 Animal/microbial interactions in soil biological processes. Anderson, J.M. 311-312.

     

    PT: Miscellaneous

     

    AN: 801958704

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Nutritional quality of tropical paddy straw mushroom.

     

    AU: Gopalakrishnan-M; Pruthi-JS

     

    SO: Indian-Food-Packer. 1977, 31: 5, 14-17; 17 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total sugar, other acid-hydrolysable carbohydrates, total ash, HCl-insoluble ash, Ca, P, Fe and ascorbic acid in Agaricus and Volvariella species are reported.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    CI: Food RA Abstracts 31, 5254.

     

    AN: 780369046

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: The possibilities of growing tropical and subtropical edible mushrooms (in temperate regions).

     

    AU: Jablonsky-I

     

    SO: Agricultura-Tropica-et-Subtropica. 1977, 10: 147-157; 2 fig.; 2 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: Czech, Russian

     

    AB: The species considered include Agaricus bitorquis, A. chionodermus, A. subedulis, Volvariella volvacea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Pleurotus florida and Lentinus edodes. Cultural methods are outlined.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 790373725

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Some cultural characteristics of Volvariella volvacea mycelia.

     

    AU: Lin-KG; Broughton-WJ; Broughton-WJ (ed.); John-CK (ed.); Rajarao-JC (ed.); Lim-B (ed.)

     

    SO: Soil-microbiology-and-plant-nutrition. 1979, 533-542; 7 ref.

     

    PB: University of Malaya Press.; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya

     

    LA: English

     

    PT: Miscellaneous

     

    AN: 811963084

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: The sterol composition of Volvariella volvacea and other edible mushrooms.

     

    AU: Huang,-BH; Yung,-KH; Chang,-ST

     

    SO: Mycologia. 1985, 77: 6, 959-963; 14 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The total lipid content of V. volvacea, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Tremella fuciformis, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Auricularia auricula ranged from 0.6 to 3.1% dry weight. Sterols were separated by chromatographic techniques and their structures determined by GLC, and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, NMR, MS). Ergosterol (provitamin D2) was present in all mushrooms and ranged from 0.01% dry weight (T. fuciformis) to 0.47% (V. volvacea). In V. volvacea ergosterol content was higher at the mature stage than at the egg stage (0.54%, 0.39%, respectively) and cap content was higher than stalk content (0.63%, 0.27%, respectively). V. volvacea, P. sajor-caju and L. edodes also contained 24beta-methylcholesta-5,7-dien-3beta-ol (provitamin D4) and 24B-methylcholesta-7-en-3beta-ol (gamma-ergostenol).

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C341941

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: The production of constitutive invertase and inulinase by the mushroom Panaeolus papilionaceus in submerged culture.

     

    AU: Mukherjee,-K; Sengupta,-S; Chakraborty,-K

     

    SO: Canadian-Journal-of-Microbiology. 1985, 31: 9, 773-777; 19 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: French

     

    AB: Five edible fungi (Panaeolus papilionaceus, Coprinus lagopus, Lentinus squarrosulus, Agaricus bisporus and Volvariella volvacea) on their optimum growing media (formulae given) were screened for extracellular inulinase and invertase activities. The enzymes were found to be produced constitutively by the fungi, but the carbon source (glucose, sucrose and starch) in the medium influenced the production of individual enzymes. The highest producers of inulinase and invertase were P. papilionaceus growing in starch medium and A. bisporus growing in glucose medium, respectively. A medium for the optimum production of invertase and inulinase (for commercial use) by P. papilionaceus was developed by determining the optimum concentrations of suitable carbon and nitrogen sources. Some of the physicochemical properties of the enzymes present in the culture filtrate were studied.

     

    GE: India-

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C332829

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Reversion of mycelial protoplasts of Volvariella volvacea (Bull. ex. Fr.) Singer.

     

    AU: Santiago,-CM, Jr.

     

    SO: Philippine-Agriculturist. 1983, 66: 2, 168-175; 14 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Regeneration from protoplasts was slightly better when they were cultured on complex media than on defined media; it was enhanced by supplementary C sources and either complex or simple N sources.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: P308230

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Paddy straw mushroom culture.

     

    OT: La culture de la volvaire.

     

    AU: Delmas,-J; Sun,-S

     

    SO: P.H.M.---Revue-Horticole. 1984, No. 247, 11-17; 10 ref., 6 col. pl., 2 fig.

     

    LA: French

     

    AB: The traditional method of Volvariella volvacea culture in humid tropical climates is outlined. For modern culture, a high cellulose substrate with a high C/N ratio is required. It is sterilized at 60C for 2-4 h after fermentation. After spawning, the temperature is maintained at 35-38?for about 4 days, then reduced to 30?to encourage flushing, and raised again after each flush. No casing is necessary. Picking is at the egg stage. All the flushes from a bed may be obtained in 15-20 days. Fresh yields vary from 12 to 30 kg/100 kg substrate dry matter. Data are tabulated on the composition of suitable substrates

     

    GE: France-

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C224007

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Effect of maturity and heat treatments on the nutritional quality of paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Devi,-PS; Sarojini,-G

     

    SO: Indian-Journal-of-Nutrition-and-Dietetics. 1983, 20: 7, 222-225; 6 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Rice straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) were analysed. The range between immature and mature button and stem and expanded cap of mature mushroom was, per 100 g, of water 88.5 to 93, protein 3.1 to 4, crude fat 0.6 or 0.8, crude fibre 1.1 to 1.4, carbohydrate 1.0 (immature button) to 3.9 (cap) and ash 1.1 to 1.7 g; energy 21.8 (immature button) to 3.8 (cap) kcal; calcium 9.2 to 10.8, phosphorus 100 to 106, iron 1.2 to 1.8 and vitamin C 11 (cap) to 14 (immature button) mg; carotene, none in any of those 4 tissues. Mature buttons and stems were more nutritious than immature buttons or caps. Loss of vitamin C during the cooking of mature buttons was 50% with boiling, 67% with deep frying and 75% with shallow frying. Other nutrients were little affected by cooking.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: N597390

     

    TI: Carbohydrate analysis of some edible mushrooms.

     

    AU: Savita-Gupta; Kapoor,-VP; Gupta,-S

     

    SO: Vegetable-Science. 1990, 17: 2, 227-229; 10 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: Hindi

     

    AB: The reducing sugar contents of mushrooms and 6 other species of edible fungi examined ranged from 6.3 to 18.0% while the non-reducing sugars were in the range from 1.9 to 3.6%. The highest percentage of reducing sugars was in Volvariella volvacea (18.0%) followed by Pleurotus cystidiosus (16.5%) and Podaxis pistillaris (15.0%) and the highest percentage of non-reducing sugars was found in Pleurotus cystidiosus (3.6%) followed by Pleurotus sajor-caju (3.2%). The latter contained the lowest amount of reducing sugars (6.3%) whereas Macrolepiota rachodes [Lepiota rhacodes], Pleurotus flabellatus and Agaricus bisporus contained 10.9, 14.1 and 11.5% reducing sugars, respectively. The main sugar constituents in mushrooms were D-galactose (largest constituent), D-glucose and D-ribose.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C144666

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: The production of extracellular endo-alpha-mannanase by the mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Khowala,-S; Sengupta,-S

     

    SO: Canadian-Journal-of-Microbiology. 1984, 30: 5, 657-662; 14 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: French

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C232247

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Effect of maturity and heat treatments on the nutritional quality of paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Devi,-PS; Sarojini,-G

     

    SO: Indian-Journal-of-Nutrition-and-Dietetics. 1983, 20: 7, 222-225; 6 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Rice straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) were analysed. The range between immature and mature button and stem and expanded cap of mature mushroom was, per 100 g, of water 88.5 to 93, protein 3.1 to 4, crude fat 0.6 or 0.8, crude fibre 1.1 to 1.4, carbohydrate 1.0 (immature button) to 3.9 (cap) and ash 1.1 to 1.7 g; energy 21.8 (immature button) to 3.8 (cap) kcal; calcium 9.2 to 10.8, phosphorus 100 to 106, iron 1.2 to 1.8 and vitamin C 11 (cap) to 14 (immature button) mg; carotene, none in any of those 4 tissues. Mature buttons and stems were more nutritious than immature buttons or caps. Loss of vitamin C during the cooking of mature buttons was 50% with boiling, 67% with deep frying and 75% with shallow frying. Other nutrients were little affected by cooking.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: N597390

     

    TI: Interspecific protoplast fusion of straw mushroom and behaviour of regenerated strains.

     

    AU: Wang-FD; Ye-XF; Ye-GZ; Xia-ZA

     

    SO: Acta-Agriculturae-Shanghai. 1992, 8: 1, 14-19; 12 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: PEG induced fusion rates of up to 95% were seen between protoplasts of Volvariella diplasia and V. volvacea; the average rate was 4%. The majority of the mycelia that regenerated formed fruiting bodies, but these showed a greater number of abnormalities compared to the parents. The morphology and colour of the fusion products was intermediate between the parents. Isoenzyme patterns differed from those seen in the parents in some of the hybrid fruiting bodies. The protein and amino acid contents of some of the regenerated sporophores were significantly higher than those of the parents.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 931645561

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Meiosis and behavior of nuclei during basidiospore formation in Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Li-XY; Yang-YZ; Sen-RD

     

    SO: Acta-Mycologica-Sinica. 1991, 10: 1, 72-78; 9 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 930326139

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Structures and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from mycelium of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Kishida-E; Kinoshita-C; Sone-Y; Misaki-A

     

    SO: Bioscience,-Biotechnology-and-Biochemistry. 1992, 56: 8, 1308-1309; 10 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Extracellular and cell-wall polysaccharides were isolated from cultured mycelium and their structures were investigated by methylation analysis. In assays using the sarcoma 180-ICR mouse system, the alkali-soluble beta-D-glucan fraction showed high antitumour activity, but the water-soluble and extracellular polysaccharides did not inhibit tumour growth. The structural features of the active glucan are discussed in relation to those of active polysaccharides previously isolated from the fruiting body of V. volvacea [see Misaki, A. et al, Agricultural and Biological Chemistry (1986) 50, 2171-2183].

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 930326049

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: The superoxide dismutase of the mycelia of straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Li-JS; Zhu-J; Quo-SZ

     

    SO: Journal-of-Fujian-Agricultural-College. 1990, 19: 3, 263-267; 5 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was monitored during mycelial development of 8 V. volvacea strains. SOD activity was greatest in 2-week-old mycelia. The link between SOD activity and yield of mycelia is discussed. Three of the strains had only 1 form of SOD whereas the other 5 strains exhibited several isoforms.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 930324175

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Protein carboxyl methylation in the mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Ghosh-AK

     

    SO: Phytochemistry. 1993, 32: 5, 1093-1096; 17 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Protein carboxyl-methyl transferase was produced intracellularly by V. volvacea, when grown under shake-flask conditions for 7 days. Relatively high levels of enzymic activity were observed on the first day of growth, which decreased to almost half of the initial level from the second day onwards. Optimum conditions for the enzyme were 50C and pH 6. The Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine was 2 M. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine appeared to be a competitive inhibitor, its Ki being 2.5 M. Enzymic and/or non-enzymic hydrolysis of methylated protein was observed even at pH 6. From these observations, the existence of a second class of protein carboxyl-methyl transferase (EC 2.1.1.77 [protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase]) was suggested.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 940304410

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Biomass and extracellular hydrolytic enzyme production by six mushroom species grown in soybean waste.

     

    AU: Buswell-JA; Chang-ST

     

    SO: Biotechnology-Letters. 1994, 16: 12, 1317-1322.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The relative abilities of six mushroom fungi to generate biomass and to produce cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteases during growth on soyabean waste are investigated. The fungi used were Lycophyllum shimeji M-46, Tricholoma lobayense T-2, Morcella elata M-26, Pleurotus sajor-caju Pl-27, Coriolus versicolor and Volvariella volvacea. Biomass yields obtained after 7 d growth on soyabean extract medium (SEM) adjusted to the appropriate opt. growth pH were (mg dry wt./ml) :C. versicolor, 1.5; L. shimeji, 2.7; M. elata, 2.7; P. sajor-caju, 3.8; T. lobayense, 1.5; and V. volvacea, 3.9. Highest enzyme levels on soyabean waste medium (SWM) were recorded in cultures of L. shimeji and P. sajor-caju with max. activities observed after 4 and 6 d, resp. P. sajor-caju grown on SEM produced higher titres of amylase with peak levels 3-fold greater than with SWM cultures. SEM was not a good medium for the expression of xylanase but SWM produced relatively high levels in submerged cultures of C. versicolor, V. volvacea and P. sajor-caju. Low but detectable levels of cellulase (CMCase) were observed when each of the fungi were grown on SWM. No CMCase activity was detected in SEM cultures. Highest titres for protease production on SEM were detected in cultures of V. volvacea and T. lobayense. Higher protease production was observed on SWM with max. enzyme levels 800 and 40% higher for T. lobayense and V. volvacea, resp. Soyabean waste was a good substrate for biomass production, and the expression of amylolytic, xylanolytic and proteolytic enzymes, by selected mushroom fungi. Considerable potential exists for converting soyabean wastes into added-value products using systems based on these fungi.

     

    GE: Hong-Kong

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 951905617

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Structure-activity characterization, a quick method to screen mushrooms for the presence of antitumour glucans.

     

    AU: Mascarenhas-M

     

    SO: Mushroom-Research. 1994, 3: 2, 77-80; 6 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Various fungi have been used to treat cancer in traditional systems of medicine. Analysis of the extracts of a number of these fungi has indicated that high-MW glucans with 1-3 and 1-6 linked glucose units are associated with antitumour activity. The structural elucidation of glucans in extracts is described as a quick method of screening for antitumour activity. The procedure was applied to extracts of Volvariella volvacea and the glucan extracted showed antitumour activity against Sarcoma 180 cells.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 950309478

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Biomass and extracellular hydrolytic enzyme production by six mushroom species grown in soybean waste.

     

    AU: Buswell-JA; Chang-ST

     

    SO: Biotechnology-Letters. 1994, 16: 12, 1317-1322.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The relative abilities of six mushroom fungi to generate biomass and to produce cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteases during growth on soyabean waste are investigated. The fungi used were Lycophyllum shimeji M-46, Tricholoma lobayense T-2, Morcella elata M-26, Pleurotus sajor-caju Pl-27, Coriolus versicolor and Volvariella volvacea. Biomass yields obtained after 7 d growth on soyabean extract medium (SEM) adjusted to the appropriate opt. growth pH were (mg dry wt./ml) :C. versicolor, 1.5; L. shimeji, 2.7; M. elata, 2.7; P. sajor-caju, 3.8; T. lobayense, 1.5; and V. volvacea, 3.9. Highest enzyme levels on soyabean waste medium (SWM) were recorded in cultures of L. shimeji and P. sajor-caju with max. activities observed after 4 and 6 d, resp. P. sajor-caju grown on SEM produced higher titres of amylase with peak levels 3-fold greater than with SWM cultures. SEM was not a good medium for the expression of xylanase but SWM produced relatively high levels in submerged cultures of C. versicolor, V. volvacea and P. sajor-caju. Low but detectable levels of cellulase (CMCase) were observed when each of the fungi were grown on SWM. No CMCase activity was detected in SEM cultures. Highest titres for protease production on SEM were detected in cultures of V. volvacea and T. lobayense. Higher protease production was observed on SWM with max. enzyme levels 800 and 40% higher for T. lobayense and V. volvacea, resp. Soyabean waste was a good substrate for biomass production, and the expression of amylolytic, xylanolytic and proteolytic enzymes, by selected mushroom fungi. Considerable potential exists for converting soyabean wastes into added-value products using systems based on these fungi.

     

    GE: Hong-Kong

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 951905617

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Structure-activity characterization, a quick method to screen mushrooms for the presence of antitumour glucans.

     

    AU: Mascarenhas-M

     

    SO: Mushroom-Research. 1994, 3: 2, 77-80; 6 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Various fungi have been used to treat cancer in traditional systems of medicine. Analysis of the extracts of a number of these fungi has indicated that high-MW glucans with 1-3 and 1-6 linked glucose units are associated with antitumour activity. The structural elucidation of glucans in extracts is described as a quick method of screening for antitumour activity. The procedure was applied to extracts of Volvariella volvacea and the glucan extracted showed antitumour activity against Sarcoma 180 cells.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 950309478

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Special issue on mushrooms: the versatile fungus - food and medicinal properties. Chemistry, biochemistry, biotechnology, and utilization.

     

    AU: Mizuno-T

     

    SO: Food-Reviews-International. 1995, 11: 1, 236 pp.; ref. at ends of individual papers.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: This special issue is devoted to the medicinal properties of mushrooms. Papers reviewing particular aspects/species are presented in two sections. (1) Bioactivity and utilization of mushrooms. Papers are presented on the following subjects: Bioactive biomolecules of mushrooms: food function and medicinal effect of mushroom fungi; Antitumour-active substances from mushrooms; Mushroom lectins; Health foods and medicinal usages of mushrooms; and Biologically active components of poisonous mushrooms. (2) Biochemistry of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Papers on the following species (many of which have antitumour activity) are presented: Shiitake (Lentinus [Lentinula] edodes); Kofukisarunokoshikake (Ganoderma applanatum); Tsugasarunokoshikake (Fomitopsis pinicola); Maitake (Grifola frondosa); Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae); Kawariharatake (Agaricus blazei); Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceum [H. erinaceus]); Ningyotake (Polyporus confluens); Houbitake (Pleurotus sajor-caju); Huangmo, Ohma (Hohenbuehelia serotina); Nireohma, Yuhuangmo (Pleurotus citrinopileatus); Niohshimeji (Tricholoma giganteum); Enokitake (Flammulina velutipes); Bunashimeji (Hypsizigus marmoreus); Kikurage (Auricularia auricula); Shirokikurage (Tremella fuciformis); Straw mushroom, Fukurotake (Volvariella volvacea); Kinugasatake (Dictyophora indusiata); and Tochukaso (Cordyceps spp.).

     

    PT: Miscellaneous

     

    AN: 950310821

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Fatty acid composition of Volvariella volvacea and other edible mushrooms.

     

    AU: Huang,-BH; Yung,-KH; Chang,-ST

     

    SO: Mushroom Science. Part II. Proceedings of the twelfth international congress on the science and cultivation of edible fungi. September 1987, Braunschweig, Germany. 1989, 533-540; 16 ref. Braunschweig, Germany; International Society for Mushroom Science.

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: German, French

     

    AB: The fatty acid compositions are reported for Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Tremella fuciformis, Lentinus [Lentinula] edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Auricularia auricula-judae [A. auricula].

     

    PT: Unnumbered-Part

     

    AN: C111768

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Carbohydrate analysis of some edible mushrooms.

     

    AU: Savita-Gupta; Kapoor,-VP; Gupta,-S

     

    SO: Vegetable-Science. 1990, 17: 2, 227-229; 10 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: Hindi

     

    AB: The reducing sugar contents of mushrooms and 6 other species of edible fungi examined ranged from 6.3 to 18.0% while the non-reducing sugars were in the range from 1.9 to 3.6%. The highest percentage of reducing sugars was in Volvariella volvacea (18.0%) followed by Pleurotus cystidiosus (16.5%) and Podaxis pistillaris (15.0%) and the highest percentage of non-reducing sugars was found in Pleurotus cystidiosus (3.6%) followed by Pleurotus sajor-caju (3.2%). The latter contained the lowest amount of reducing sugars (6.3%) whereas Macrolepiota rachodes [Lepiota rhacodes], Pleurotus flabellatus and Agaricus bisporus contained 10.9, 14.1 and 11.5% reducing sugars, respectively. The main sugar constituents in mushrooms were D-galactose (largest constituent), D-glucose and D-ribose.

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C144666

     
     
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