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    草菇――遗传育种


    【发布日期】:2010-03-25

    TI: Transformation of the edible fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Jia-JianHua; Buswell-JA; Peberdy-JF; Jia-JH

     

    SO: Mycological-Research. 1998, 102: 7, 876-880; 44 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: A gene transfer system is described for the edible mushrooms P. ostreatus and V. volvacea using PEG-mediated transformation of protoplasts. A positive selection strategy using the trp3iar gene from Coprinus cinereus, which confers resistance to the antimetabolite 5-fluoroindole, was used. Transformation frequencies were low in both species. Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of transgenes into the genome of transformants and indicated the presence of tandemly duplicated copies of the plasmid in some of these transformants. The system has potential for introducing beneficial traits such as enhanced substrate bioconversion and faster sporophore development.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 981611296

     

     

     

    TI: Cross-breeding and isoenzyme analysis of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Xie-BaoGui; Yi-Hong; Huang-ZhiLong; Lin-YouZhao; Xie-FuQuan; Jiang-YuJi; Xie-BG; Yi-H; Huang-ZL; Lin-YZ; Xie-FQ; Jiang-YJ

     

    SO: Journal-of-Fujian-Agricultural-University. 2001, 30: 3, 372-376; 7 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Ten V. volvacea strains were used as parents from which 45 hybrid strains were produced. Most of the hybrid strains with high yield were derived from parents with high general and specific combining abilities. Monosporous strains exhibited late fruiting and had low yield. Early fruiting parents, monosporous strains and hybrid strains had relatively high yield while late fruiting ones had relatively low yield. Three hybrids (h04, h32 and h33) were identified by isoenzyme analysis.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20013150406

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Transformation technologies for mushrooms.

     

    AU: Challen-MP; Gregory-KE; Sreenivasaprasad-S; Rogers-CC; Cutler-SB; Diaper-DC; Elliott-TJ; Foster-GD; Griensven-LJLD-van

     

    SO: Science and cultivation of edible fungi. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on the Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi, Maastricht, Netherlands, 15-19 May, 2000. 2000, 165-172; 49 ref.

     

    PB: A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: The edible mushrooms Agrocybe aegerita, Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Volvariella volvacea have now been transformed. In A. bisporus, a range of vectors, delivery systems, and Agrobacterium transfection have been evaluated. Using protoplasts and selection for hygromycin resistance some transformants were obtained, but they proved unstable. Agro-transfections did yield stable transformants. To improve efficiency and utility of markers, novel systems are developed based on Agaricus genes and regulatory sequences. An extensive range of promoter cassettes has been built for use with a variety of reporter/marker genes and to assist development of future constructs. The A. bisporus orotidine-5'-monophosphate-decarboxylase gene (URA3) which has potential for transformation of a ura3 auxotroph, was cloned and sequenced. Genes for para-aminobenzoic acid can encode sulfonamide resistance and this system was tested in homobasidiomycetes. A mutant A. bisporus gene that encodes carboxin resistance was cloned, sequenced and used to transform Coprinus cinereus.

     

    PT: Conference-paper

     

    IB: 90-5809-144-9

     

    AN: 20001612878

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Cloning cold-shock related genes from the Volvariella volvacea genomic library.

     

    AU: Chen-M; Li-N; Wang-N; Lin-X; Pan-Y; Jong-SC; Griensven-LJLD-van

     

    SO: Science and cultivation of edible fungi. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on the Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi, Maastricht, Netherlands, 15-19 May, 2000. 2000, 267-270; 8 ref.

     

    PB: A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Volvariella volvacea, commonly known as the Chinese straw mushroom, is an important edible fungus of the tropics and subtropics. It grows preferentially at high temperature and very high relative humidity. Contrary to other edible fungi, this mushroom will lyse and die when the ambient temperature decreases to 4C for a short period of time. Because V. volvacea has a short shelf-life and cannot be stored at low temperature, commercial distribution has been limited. To study the straw mushroom's sensitivity to low temperature we used RNA differential display to isolate several cold-shock genes induced by a temperature drop to 4C. Amplified cold-shock related cDNA fragments were cloned and sequenced. A genomic DNA library was constructed with a Lambda GEM-11 genomic cloning vector. Cold-shock related clones were isolated from the library and further characterized.

     

    PT: Conference-paper

     

    IB: 90-5809-144-9

     

    AN: 20001613049

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Genetic analysis and isozymic determination of hybrid of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Huang-Yi; Xie-BaoGui; Guo-LiQiong; Jiang-YuJi; Huang-Y; Xie-BG; Gio-LQ; Jiang-YJ

     

    SO: Journal-of-Fujian-Agricultural-University. 1996, 25: 4, 433-437; 6 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Information is presented on isoenzyme analysis of 989 progeny of a V. volvacea hybrid using the enzymes esterase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase [catechol oxidase].

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 981602901

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Interspecific hybridization between Volvariella volvacea and V. bombycina by PEG-induced protoplast fusion.

     

    AU: Zhao-J; Chang-ST

     

    SO: World-Journal-of-Microbiology-and-Biotechnology. 1997, 13: 2, 145-151; 30 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Interspecific hybridization between Volvariella volvacea and V. bombycina was studied using protoplast fusion. The fusion frequency was range of 0.03 to 0.33%. Protoplasts from various hybrids were released and regenerated to determine whether they were heterokaryons. In all regenerated colonies, both parental types could not be recovered at the same time. The nuclear DNA contents of hybrids were compared with their parents and no diploids (parent 1 genome plus parent 2 genome) were found. Some hybrids revealed novel fragments in mitochondrial rDNA PCR profiles, which indicated that rearrangement of mtDNA could have occurred after fusion. Results from arbitrarily-primed PCR fingerprints also revealed that the majority of hybrids were similar to one parental type, but heterologous fragments were found in some hybrids.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 971605080

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Determination of the polyphenol oxidase activity in the fruiting body of irradiated strains of the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Bull. ex Fr.) Sing. 

     

    AU: Li,-J

     

    SO: Zhongguo-Shiyongjun-Edible-Fungi-of-China. 1987, No. 2, 6-7. 

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Two selections were irradiated with 60Co gamma-radiation (5000 R) and then cultured on straw beds. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was higher in the irradiated V85 selection than in its non-irradiated control, while PPO activity in the irradiated wild strain was much lower than in its non-irradiated control. 

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: C493130

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Application of biotechnology in strain selection and development of edible mushrooms. 

     

    AU: Miles,-PG; Chang,-ST

     

    SO: ASEAN-Food-Journal. 1986, 2: 1, 3-10; 15 ref. 

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: This paper refers to Agaricus species, Lentinus edodes, Volvariella volvacea, Flammulina velutipes and other species of minor importance. Following an account of the requirements for commercial cultivation, a survey is presented of (1) information needed for breeding and strain selection (including life cycle and genetic control data) and (2) breeding techniques, with information on methodology, establishment and maintenance of cultures, characterization of monosporous mycelia into bipolar or tetrapolar species, and selection of recombinants. 

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: P578032

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Studies on growing edible fungi on improved straw from a dual use rice cultivar.

     

    AU: Zheng-JinGui; Chen-JunChen; Yang-Jing; Zheng-KaiBin; Ye-XinFu; Huang-QinLou; Xie-BaoGui; Chen-BingHuan; Tu-GaiLin; Chen-WangRui; Zheng-JG; Chen-JC; Yang-J; Zheng-KB; Ye-XF; Huang-QL; Xie-BG; Chen-BH; Tu-GL; Chen-WR

     

    SO: Agricultural-Sciences-in-China. 2002, 1: 8, 871-877; 9 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Every year 500 million tons of rice (Oryza sativa) straw are generated worldwide, which was almost equal to the production of rice grain. Most straw is not recovered due to the poor quality, high cost or complicated treatment operations. Through genetic improvements, a rice cultivar '201' was developed with both high nutrient content in straw and high grain yield. The results of 15N tracer experiments showed that 15N of urea could be effectively transformed into straw protein of '201' and the recovery rate of 15N in the straw of '201' was 104% higher than that of the control 'TY 63'. The straw protein of '201' could be effectively transformed into mushroom protein and the recovery rate of 15N was 21.7% higher than that of 'TY 63'. Using the straw of '201' as material to cultivate straw-based edible fungi, improved the yield and protein content of mushrooms. A total of 7.5 mg ha-1 straw of '201' increased the yield and crude protein of the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea by 797 kg and 67.9 kg, respectively, and increased the yield and crude protein of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei by 675 kg and 80 kg, respectively. The straw powder of '201' could be used to substitute for the same weight of wheat bran to cultivate lignicolous edible fungi, with no significant difference in terms of mushroom yield or the crude protein content. Straw powder could substitute for 20% of total amount of material to grow Auricularia polytricha, Auricularia auricula, Hypsizygus tessulatus, Lentinula edodes and Hericium erinaceus, 8% of that to grow Agrocybe cylindracea and 7.5% of that to grow Flammulina velutipes, respectively.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 20023145031

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Use of isozyme analysis to determine genetic similarity in the paddy straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. 

     

    OT: [Abstract].

     

    AU: Jodon,-MH; Royse,-DJ; Antoun,-GG; May,-B

     

    SO: Phytopathology. 1986, 76: 6, 654. 

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: A total of 19 lines, representing world-wide commercial and wild germplasm, were grown on potato-dextrose/yeast extract broth for 2-3 weeks. The harvested mycelium was frozen, allowed to thaw and crushed to release enzymes. When samples were analysed for 40 enzymes by means of starch-gel electrophoresis, 12 loci were found to be monomorphic and 6 polymorphic; 10 unique genotypes were distinguished among the 19 lines. Genetic relatedness was determined by means of the genetic identity technique of Nei & Rogers and by cluster analysis. Lines with identical alleles expressed at the same loci are thought possibly to have originated from the same genetic source. 

     

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

    AN: P568010

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Strain improvement of selected species of edible fungi.

     

    AU: Santiago-CM Jr.; Mercado-BB; Leon-ED-de; Flores-RP; Garcia-RP; Bigol-MB; De-Leon-ED

     

    SO: Philippine-Journal-of-Science. 1991, 120: 2, 159-178; 24 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: Protoplasts were isolated from Volvariella volvacea and Agaricus bisporus using lytic enzyme treatment and were evaluated for wall regeneration and reversion frequency. Basidiospores from both species and Lentinus [Lentinula] edodes were treated with ultraviolet radiation and nitrous acid. Biochemical mutants were identified using the Holliday technique. Six auxotrophic mutants of V. volvacea were characterized and subjected to genetic analysis for segregation of auxotrophic markers. Protoplast fusion between them and A. bisporus was also undertaken. Of several high temperature tolerant mutants that were selected, 9 of A. bisporus and 5 of L. edodes were used in breeding experiments. Basidiocarp production using different substrates, temperature regimes and CO2 concentrations were investigated for each species.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 931638607

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Studies on protoplasts technology of filamentous fungi. (V) Morphological observations of protoplasts fusions.

     

    AU: Zhang-ZG; Li-DP; Fang-F

     

    SO: Acta-Scientiarum-Naturalium-Universitatis-Normalis-Hunanensis. 1994, 17: 3, 41-48; 12 ref.

     

    LA: Chinese

     

    LS: English

     

    AB: Results are presented of protoplast isolation, regeneration of plantlets from protoplasts and protoplast fusion for 6 species of filamentous fungi (Rhizopus formosaensis, Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Volvariella volvacea, V. bombycina and Pleurotus ostreatus). Genetic background, incompatibility and wall synthesis mechanism affected the regeneration rate of interspecific fusants.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 941612187

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Genetical studies on the sexuality pattern of Volvariella volvacea.

     

    AU: Chang-ST; Li-SX; Maher-MJ

     

    SO: Mushroom Science XIII. Volume 1. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on the Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi, Dublin, Irish Republic, 1-6 September 1991. 1991, 119-122; 12 ref.

     

    PB: A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands

     

    LA: English

     

    LS: French, German

     

    AB: V. volvacea has long been considered as a primary homothallic species which is able to complete its life cycle when grown from a single meiotic spore, i.e., it is self-fertile without crossing. However, due to their multinucleate nature and absence of clamp connections, it is difficult to prove whether fertile isolates are derived from true self-fertile monosporous isolates or result from cross-mated heterokaryons. Therefore, the production of marked strains offers a possible means of resolving this problem. In this study, mutant strains, malachite green-resistant mutants and aspartate-requiring auxotrophs were used to study the sexual pattern of this mushroom. Results from progeny analysis showed that over 90% of monosporous isolates of mutants retained their marker phenotype. It is concluded that V. volvacea is a primary homothallic species.

     

    PT: Conference-paper

     

    IB: 90-5410-021-4 (set)\90-5410-022-2 (Vol. 1)

     

    AN: 941601228

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Evaluation of the 5-fluoroindole resistance marker for mushroom transformation.

     

    AU: Challen-MP; Elliott-TJ

     

    SO: Cultivated-Mushroom-Research-CMR-Newsletter. 1994, 2: 1, 13-20; 39 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: A dominant mutation in the anthranilate synthetase gene (trp3) of Coprinus cinereus encodes phenotypic resistance to the indole analogue 5-fluoroindole (5FI). The mutant gene (trp3iar) was used as a positively selectable marker for the transformation of several homobasidiomycetes including C. cinereus and C. bilanatus. The indole analogue inhibited mycelial growth of the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, three Pleurotus species and Volvariella volvacea; a prerequisite for the use of trp3iar in transformation. The efficacy of this selectable marker was tested in mushroom transformations. Protoplasts of A. bisporus were produced from gill tissue and mycelia but did not yield transformants when presented with trp3iar vectors. In experiments using P. ostreatus protoplasts a high incidence of transient resistance hindered selection, and transformants were not identified. Reasons for the lack of trp3iar expression in these mushroom species is not clear, but the use of the 5FI resistance marker should be considered when developing transformation of other homobasidiomycetes.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 951608133

     

     

     

     

     

    TI: Evaluation of the 5-fluoroindole resistance marker for mushroom transformation.

     

    AU: Challen-MP; Elliott-TJ

     

    SO: Cultivated-Mushroom-Research-CMR-Newsletter. 1994, 2: 1, 13-20; 39 ref.

     

    LA: English

     

    AB: A dominant mutation in the anthranilate synthetase gene (trp3) of Coprinus cinereus encodes phenotypic resistance to the indole analogue 5-fluoroindole (5FI). The mutant gene (trp3iar) was used as a positively selectable marker for the transformation of several homobasidiomycetes including C. cinereus and C. bilanatus. The indole analogue inhibited mycelial growth of the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, three Pleurotus species and Volvariella volvacea; a prerequisite for the use of trp3iar in transformation. The efficacy of this selectable marker was tested in mushroom transformations. Protoplasts of A. bisporus were produced from gill tissue and mycelia but did not yield transformants when presented with trp3iar vectors. In experiments using P. ostreatus protoplasts a high incidence of transient resistance hindered selection, and transformants were not identified. Reasons for the lack of trp3iar expression in these mushroom species is not clear, but the use of the 5FI resistance marker should be considered when developing transformation of other homobasidiomycetes.

     

    PT: Journal-article

     

    AN: 951608133

     
     
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