诸城市良工机械有限公司
易菇网
省级分站
分类网
  • 2018第三届全国羊肚菌大会圆满落幕
  • 中国菌物学会2018年学术年会
  • 易菇图书商城
  • 当前位置: 首页 » 技术 » 海外文摘 » 正文

    草菇――品种特性


    【发布日期】:2010-03-25

    TI: Hydrocyanic acid in mushrooms, with special reference to wild-growing and cultivated edible species.

    AU: Stijve-T; Meijer-AAR-de; de-Meijer-AAR

    SO: Deutsche-Lebensmittel-Rundschau. 1999, 95: 9, 366-373; 33 ref.

    LA: English

    LS: German

    AB: Approximately 150 cultivated and wild-growing mushrooms available in German and Swiss markets were screened for their ability to produce hydrocyanic acid (HCN). Only 14 species, or about 9%, tested consistently positive, and the amounts produced were 7-268 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis. The three most important cultivated species, the white button mushroom, the oyster and the padi straw mushroom tested negative. Even mild processing, such as drying at temperatures over 50C, and cooking and frying, completely destroyed the cyanogenic compounds. Consequently, HCN in edible mushrooms does not present any health hazard to the consumer. Cyanogenesis in higher fungi has some value as a taxonomic marker, since it is predominant in Lepista and Pseudoclitocybe. It is also present in the Tricholomataceae and the Aphyllophorales, notably in many Polyporaceae. The mechanism of HCN production is briefly discussed. Presence of HCN was confirmed for 17 fungi previously reported to be cyanogenic; a list of species of fungi containing HCN is given.

    GE: Germany-; Switzerland-

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 19991415014

     

     

    TI: Production and distribution of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and beta-glucosidase components of the cellulolytic system of Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom.

    AU: Cai-YiJin; Chapman-SJ; Buswell-JA; Chang-ShuTing; Cai-YJ; Chang-ST

    SO: Applied-and-Environmental-Microbiology. 1999, 65: 2, 553-559; 34 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: The edible straw mushroom, V. volvacea, produces a multicomponent enzyme system consisting of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase [cellulase], cellobiohydrolase, and beta-glucosidase for the conversion of cellulose to glucose. The highest levels of endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase were recorded in cultures containing microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) or filter paper, while lower but detectable levels of activity were also produced on carboxymethyl cellulose, cotton wool, xylitol, or salicin. Biochemical analyses of different culture fractions in cultures exhibiting peak enzyme production revealed that most of the endoglucase was present either in the culture filtrate (45.8% of the total) or associated with the insoluble pellet fraction remaining after centrifugation of homogenized mycelia (32.6%). Cellobiohydrolase exhibited a similar distribution pattern, with 58.9% of the total enzyme present in culture filtrates and 31.0% associated with the pellet fraction. Conversely, most beta-glucosidase activity (63.9% of the total) was present in extracts of fungal mycelia whereas only 9.4% was detected in culture filtrates. The endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase distribution patterns were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with immunolabelling. Endoglucanase was largely associated with the cell wall or located extracellularly, with the highest concentrations being present in a region 1-2 m wide immediately adjacent to the outer surface of (and possibly including) the hyphal wall and extending 60-70 m from the hyphal tip. Immunofluorescence patterns indicated little if any intracellular endoglucanase. Most beta-glucosidase was located intracellularly in the apical area extending 60-70 m below the hyphal tip, although enzyme was also evident in the extracellular region extending approximately 15 m all around the hyphal tip and trailing back along the length of the hypha. The regions of the hypha located some distance from the apical region appeared to be devoid of intracellular beta-glucosidase, and the enzyme appears to be associated almost exclusively with, or located on the outside surface of, the hyphal wall.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 19990309901

     

     

    TI: Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and fecal neutral sterol excretion are altered in hamsters fed straw mushroom diets.

    AU: Cheung-PCK

    SO: Journal-of-Nutrition. 1998, 128: 9, 1512-1516; 45 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: The effect of the fruiting body and mycelium of Volvariella volvacea on the concentrations of plasma lipids, liver cholesterol, faecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretions was investigated in male Golden Syrian hamsters. The hamsters were fed a purified hypercholesterolaemic diet (0.1% cholesterol, 10% fat) for 4 weeks to elevate plasma lipid concentrations. Twelve hamsters with elevated plasma total cholesterol were randomly assigned to each treatment group: control (5% cellulose), mushroom fruiting body (5%) and mushroom mycelium (5%). After 4 weeks of mushroom diet consumption, plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and combined VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations were lower than control in the group fed the fruiting body-diet (40, 38 and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Liver cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the fruiting body- and mycelium-fed groups (28 and 21% in terms of concentration; 39 and 30% in terms of total content, respectively) (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Faecal neutral sterol excretion in the mushroom fruiting body- and mycelium-fed groups was higher (81 and 74%, respectively) (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Although no significant differences in the excretion of faecal bile acids were observed among groups fed the mushroom diets and the control diet, the mushroom fruiting body diet-fed hamsters apparently had less bacterial degradation of cholic acid as indicated by a greater proportion (P < 0.05) of faecal cholic acid than in controls. They also had a lower proportion of faecal deoxycholic acid (P < 0.05). This study suggests that the fruiting body of the straw mushroom lowers elevated plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters, whereas the mycelium does not.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 19991411014

     

     

    TI: A novel lectin with potent immunomodulatory activity isolated from both fruiting bodies and cultured mycelia of the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: She-QingBai; Ng-TziBun; Liu-WingKeung; She-QB; Ng-TB; Liu-WK

    SO: Biochemical-and-Biophysical-Research-Communications. 1998, 247: 1, 106-111; 29 ref.

    LA: English

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 990304721

     

     

    TI: Ultraviolet irradiation increased vitamin D2 content in edible mushrooms.

    AU: Mau-JengLeun; Chen-PeiRu; Yang-JoanHwa; Mau-JL; Chen-PR; Yang-JH

    SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry. 1998, 46: 12, 5269-5272; 13 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Fresh common (Agaricus bisporus) and high-temperature mushrooms (A. bitorquis) were irradiated with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) for 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 h at 12C. Fresh common, shiitake (Lentinula edodes), and straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) were irradiated with UV-B for 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 h at 12C. After UV-C irradiation for 2 h, vitamin D2 contents in common and high-temperature mushrooms increased from 2.20 and 4.01 g/g DW to 7.30 and 5.32 g/g, respectively. After UV-B irradiation for 2 h, the vitamin D2 content in common mushrooms reached 12.48 g/g. UV-B irradiation resulted in higher vitamin D2 conversion for common mushrooms. After UV-B irradiation for 2 h, vitamin D2 contents in shiitake and straw mushrooms increased from 2.16 and 3.86 g/g to 6.58 and 7.58 g/g, respectively. The rates of increase in shiitake and straw mushrooms were not as high as in common mushrooms.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 990302420

     

     

    TI: Spent oyster mushroom substrate performs better than many mushroom mycelia in removing the biocide pentachlorophenol.

    AU: Chiu-SW; Ching-ML; Fong-KL; Moore-D

    SO: Mycological-Research. 1998, 102: 12, 1553-1562; 83 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: The ability of Armillaria gallica, A. mellea, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Polyporus sp., Coprinus cinereus and Volvariella volvacea and spent mushroom substrate of Pleurotus pulmonarius (SMS) to remove pentachlorophenol (PCP) was compared using a batch cultivation system. PCP content was monitored by reversed phase HPLC. Of the fungi which demonstrated ligninolytic ability by Poly-R478 dye decolorization, not all showed N-modulation response. All tested fungi showed active breakdown in addition to biosorption as PCP removal mechanisms. PCP tolerance level did not correlate with fungal degradative capacity, nor dye decolorization ability. A. mellea had the highest degradative capacity (13.4 mg PCP/g mycelium). Polyporus sp. possessed the greatest biosorption capacity (31.1 mg PCP/g mycelium). SMS, harbouring both bacteria and fungi, functioned between 4.7 and 31.7 mg PCP/g SMS and reached a higher degradative capacity (19.5 mg PCP/g) in only 3 days. GC-MS chromatograms revealed only residual PCP peaks in SMS extracts, whereby a variety of breakdown products were detectable in mycelial incubations. It is concluded that SMS may have applications in the bioremediation of biocide-contaminated sites.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 992300380

     

    TI: Lectins from mushrooms.

    AU: Wang-HeXiang; Ng-TziBun; Ooi-VEC; Wang-HX; Ng-TB

    SO: Mycological-Research. 1998, 102: 8, 897-906; 82 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: This review summarizes existing information about mushroom lectins, with an emphasis on those which have been most extensively characterized. These include Agaricus spp., Amanita pantherina, Boletus satanas, Coprinus cinereus, Ganoderma lucidum, Flammulina velutipes, Grifola frondosa, Hericium erinaceus, Ischnoderma resinosum, Lactarius deterrimus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Tricholoma mongolicum and Volvariella volvacea. It is noted that the mushroom lectins exhibit a diversity of chemical characteristics. Some of them are monomeric, whereas others are dimeric, trimeric or tetrameric. Their molecular weights range from 12 to 190 kDa, and the sugar contents from 0 to 18%. Carbohydrate specificities mainly involve galactose, lactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. A small number of mushroom lectins are specific for fucose, raffinose, N-glycolyneuraminic acid and N-acetyl-D-lactosamine. Studies on immunomodulatory and antitumour/cytotoxic activities which have been carried out on lectins from Agaricus bisporus, B. satanas, F. velutipes, G. lucidum, G. frondosa, T. mongolicum and V. volvacea are considered.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 980310254

     

     

    TI: Pharmacological studies on certain mushrooms from China.

    AU: Ooi-VEC

    SO: International conference "Perspectives of medicinal mushrooms in health care and nutrition in the 21st Century", Kiev, Ukraine, 12-14 September, 2001. International-Journal-of-Medicinal-Mushrooms. 2001, 3: 4, 341-354; 32 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: This article focuses mainly on biopharmacological studies of selected Chinese medicinal mushrooms, namely the immunomodulation and antitumour activity of Tricholoma giganteum, blood pressure lowering action and mechanism of Volvariella volvacea and the liver protective effect of Trametes versicolor [Coriolus versicolor]. A polysaccharide-protein complex (PSPC) isolated from the culture filtrates of T. giganteum inhibited the growth of solid Sarcoma 180 in mice, with no sign of toxicity. PSPC showed immunomodulating action in vivo. It restored and increased phagocytic function of peritoneal exudate cells (macrophages) of the tumour-bearing mice. It also exhibited indirect cytotoxicity against P815 and L929 by activating macrophages to release the mediators, such as nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The direct cytotoxicity of PSPC was observed in PU5-1.8, H3B, HL-60 and melanoma cell lines. The antiproliferative activity against PU5-1.8 cells was strong at 60 g/ml of PSPC. Therefore, the antitumour activity of PSPC might be due to both host-mediated immunomodulating action and direct cytotoxicity to cancer cells. A fraction isolated from the fruiting bodies of Volvariella volvacea (VE), with a molecular mass of about 10 kDa, was heat stable and resistant to trypsin digestion. The blood pressure changes produced by the extract alone or in the presence of various specific agonists or antagonists were investigated. An intravenous injection of VE produced a hypotensive effect in normotensive rats with an ED50 of 25 mg dry weight/kg body weight. This hypotensive effect of VE was attenuated or blunted in the presence of hexamethonium, phentolamine, pyrilamine and cimetidine suggesting the involvement of the alpha-adrenergic component of the autonomic system and/or histaminergic stimulation. The contractile response could be inhibited by the antagonists of serotonin and alpha-adrenoceptor, ketanserin and phentolamine, respectively. It is likely that VE contained serotonin-like substances because the mechanism of action of VE was similar to that of serotonin. The protective effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) of Trametes versicolor on hepatotoxicity were investigated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced and paracetamol (APAP)-induced liver injury in the rat as the chemical hepatitis models. A toxic dose of CCl4 (1.25 ml/kg) raised the levels of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and that of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) in the experimental rats. PSP significantly reduced the elevated levels of both the SGPT and SGOT in rats exposed to CCl4. Similarly, a single oral dose of 1.0 g/kg of APAP was able to produce significantly elevated the levels of SGPT and SGOT. Intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg/kg of PSP could significantly reduce the APAP-induced acute elevation in the levels of SGPT and SGOT in rats. PSP probably acts to prevent the fall of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) through some GSH-dependent enzymes and preserve the structural integrity of the cellular membrane of hepatocytes, or probably protect paracetamol-induced liver injury through their antioxidant properties acting as a scavenger of free radicals even at low levels of GSH.

    GE: China-

    PT: Journal-article; Conference-paper

    AN: 20023035597

     

     

    TI: A novel and potent ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius.

    AU: Ye-XY; Ng-TB

    SO: Biochemical-and-Biophysical-Research-Communications. 2002, 293: 2, 857-861; 19 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: A ribonuclease (RNase), with an N-terminal sequence different from those of ribonucleases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, and Volvariella volvacea, was purified from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. The N-terminal sequence of P. pulmonarius RNase manifested homology to a portion of the sequences of ribosome inactivating protein abrin-b, abrin-c, and abrin-d, and Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulator. The ribonuclease was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sepharose, and Mono S. It displayed a molecular mass of 14.4 kDa in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease exhibited an activity of 25 114 U/mg on yeast tRNA. The highest ribonucleolytic activity was demonstrated toward poly C, followed by poly A, and then by poly G. There was no activity toward poly U. The optimal pH for its activity was 7 and the optimal temperature was 55 C. It inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.33 nM.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 20023083880

     

     

    TI: Antioxidant properties of several commercial mushrooms.

    AU: Yang-JoanHwa; Lin-HsiuChing; Mau-JengLeun; Yang-JH; Lin-HC; Mau-JL

    SO: Food-Chemistry. 2002, 77: 2, 229-235; 24 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Tainung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were obtained commercially in Taiwan, and methanolic extracts were prepared from these mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities by the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate to high at 1.2 mg ml-1. Reducing powers were excellent (and higher than 1.28 absorbance) at 40 mg ml-1. Scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were moderate to high (42.9-81.8%) at 6.4 mg ml-1. With regards to the scavenging effect on hydroxyl free radicals, tree oyster mushrooms were the highest (54.3%) at 40 mg ml-1 whereas other commercial mushrooms were low. Chelating effects on ferrous ions were 45.6-81.6% at 1.6 mg ml-1. Total phenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found. Overall, tree oyster mushrooms were better in antioxidant activity, reducing power and scavenging abilities and higher in total phenol content.

    GE: Taiwan-

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 20023093581

     

     

    TI: Comparative utilization of lignocellulosic components of paddy straw by Tricholoma lobayense and Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Samir-Datta; Chakravarty-DK; Datta-S

    SO: Indian-Journal-of-Agricultural-Sciences. 2001, 71: 4, 258-260; 9 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: An experiment was conducted to study the comparative use of lignocellulosic components of paddy straw by Tricholoma lobayense and Volvariella volvacea. Results showed that T. lobayense degraded the lignin more actively until the end of spawn run phase, thus increasing the scope for attacking exposed cellulose. During the phase of fructification, degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose became more active. However, V. volvacea could utilize cellulose and hemicellulose throughout spawn run and cropping phases, but was unable to utilize lignin at any stage. Results showed that the content of mycelium in the substrate and the yield at the end of first flush in the case of the two mushroom fungi T. lobayense and V. volvacea were directly correlated with their capacity for utilization of the substrate components (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) based on their capacity to produce the hydrolytic enzymes laccase and cellulase. As V. volvacea was found to be a poor colonizer of substrate because of a less efficient hydrolytic enzyme system (unlike that of T. lobayense), the production of fruit bodies per unit quantity of substrate was also less.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 20013104549

     

     

    TI: Endoglucanase I from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea: purification, characterization, cloning and expression.

    AU: Ding-ShaoJun; Ge-Wei; Buswell-JA; Ding-SJ; Ge-W

    SO: European-Journal-of-Biochemistry. 2001, 268: 22, 5687-5695; 48 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: We isolated an endoglucanase [cellulase], EG1, from culture fluid of V. volvacea grown on crystalline cellulose by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, and preparative PAGE. EG1 has a molecular mass of 42 kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE and an isoelectric point of 7.7. Enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of carboxymethyl-cellulose (CM-cellulose) is maximum at pH 7.5 and 55C. EG1 also hydrolysed phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose and filter paper (at rates of 29 and 6%, respectively, compared with CM-cellulose), but did not hydrolyse crystalline cellulose, cotton, oat spelt xylan, and birchwood xylan. Degenerate primers based on the N-terminal sequences of purified EG1 and a protease-generated fragment were used to generate cDNA fragments encoding a portion of the EG1 gene (eg1), and RACE was used to obtain full-length cDNA clones. The cDNA of eg1 contained an ORF of 1167 bp encoding 389 amino acids. The amino acid sequence from Ala24 to Thr40 corresponded to the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. The first 23 amino acids are presumed to be a signal peptide. V. volvacea EG1 has been assigned to glycoside hydrolase family 5 according to the classification of glycohydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities. Transcripts of eg1 were detected in total RNA from mycelium grown on cellulose but not from mycelium grown on glucose. Cellobiose also induced eg1 expression in 1- to 4-day-old cultures but the signal intensity was lower than that obtained with cellulose. Catabolite repression was observed 24 h after addition of 1% (w/v) glucose, alpha-lactose, beta-lactose, xylose, mannose, sorbose or fructose to medium containing 1% (w/v) crystalline cellulose. Eg1 was expressed at a high level in the yeast, Pichia pastoris, and the catalytic activity of the recombinant EG1 was confirmed.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 20013162276

     

     

    TI: Isolation of a new heterodimeric lectin with mitogenic activity from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea.

    AU: Wang-HeXiang; Ng-TB; Liu-QingHong; Wang-HX; Liu-QH

    SO: Life-Sciences. 2002, 70: 8, 877-885; 19 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: From the dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea, a heterodimeric lectin with a molecular weight of 31.5 kDa and displaying high haemagglutinating activity was isolated. The molecular weights of its subunits were 16.1 and 15.3 kDa, respectively. The larger and the smaller subunits resembled the Agaricus bisporus lectin and the fungal immunomodulatory protein from Volvariella volvacea, respectively, in N-terminal sequence. The lectin was adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and was eluted by the same buffer containing 150 mM NaCl. It was adsorbed on SP-Sepharose in 10mM NH4OAc (pH 4.5) and eluted by ?.19 M NaCl in the same buffer. The lectin was obtained in a purified form after the mushroom extract had been subjected to (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and the two aforementioned ion exchange chromatographic steps. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes. The haemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by lactose, sialic acid and inulin.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 20023019658

     

     

    TI: Spawn media and exudate formation in search of medicinal mushrooms.

    AU: Volz-PA

    SO: International-Journal-of-Medicinal-Mushrooms. 2000, 2: 1, 81-86; 9 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Cantharellus cibarius, Lepista nuda, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Volvariella volvacea were investigated for spawn production on various seeds and other materials. When dense mycelial growth and no fruiting body formation developed on spawn media, exudate production was at times quite significant and collected as droplets on the colony surface. Both C. cibarius and P. ostreatus were capable of producing exudate, which collected in liquid pools on spawn mycelium. This waste exudate was suitable for testing and isolating potential antitumour and antimicrobial agents. Conditions with little to no exudate formation would possibly be less valuable to the pharmaceutical industry.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 20003032806

     

     

    TI: Growing and marketing Chinese vegetables in central Kentucky.

    AU: Jia-WenWei; Witt-M; Strang-J; Jia-WW; Janick-J

    SO: Progress in new crops: Proceedings of the Third National Symposium, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 22-25 October, 1996. 1996, 496-500; 7 ref.

    PB: American Society for Horticultural Science; Alexandria; USA

    LA: English

    AB: In order to evaluate their yield, quality, growing methods, pest/disease resistance and adaptation to the climate of Kentucky, >69 cultivars (42 species) of Chinese vegetables were grown between 1990 and 1995 at the University of Kentucky, at private farms in Lexington and Waddy, Kentucky, and in greenhouses at the University of Kentucky. Napa (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) [B. campestris], yard long beans (Vigna sesquipedalis) [Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis], Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), winter gourd (Benincasa hispida), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), hair gourd (B. hispida), Chinese eggplant [aubergines], celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) and various greens were the most popular among Chinese and Oriental people and gave good returns to the grower. Prices for Chinese vegetables sold in central Kentucky were higher than in Cincinnati or New York. Chinese aubergines, Chinese chives, yard long beans, pig ears (Lablab niger) [L. purpureus] and Chinese radishes (daikon) (Raphanus sativus) were the most profitable crops on a per metre basis. Successive plantings during 3 growing seasons (spring, summer and autumn) were achieved and the climate of central Kentucky made it possible to harvest Brassica crops and radishes for the entire growing season except August. In taste tests of 15 cooked vegetables in 1991, Americans preferred beautiful heart radish, Chinese broccoli (Brassica rapa var. alboglabra) [B. alboglabra], taro (Colocasia esculenta), snow peas [Pisum sativum] and straw mushrooms [Volvariella volvacea] for their colour, and straw mushrooms, snow peas, radishes and Chinese chives for their flavour. Marketing of Chinese vegetables in the USA is briefly discussed.

    GE: USA-; Kentucky-

    PT: Conference-paper

    IB: 0-9615027-3-8

    AN: 980306534

     

     

    TI: beta-Glucosidase components of the cellulolytic system of the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Cai-YJ; Buswell-JA; Chang-ST

    SO: Enzyme-and-Microbial-Technology. 1998, 22: 2, 122-129; 38 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: The edible straw mushroom, V. volvacea (V-14), produced beta-glucosidase when grown in liquid culture on a variety of carbon sources including cellulose, cellobiose, salicin, sorbose, lactose, esculin, cotton wool, and filter paper. Two cell-associated beta-glucosidases, BGL-I and BGL-II, were purified 32-fold and 23-fold, respectively, from extracts of cellulose-grown mycelium. The purification procedure included DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, Sephacryl S-200 chromatography, and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) using Mono-Q and Mono-P anion-exchange columns. The enzymes were found to be homogeneous and to have native molecular weights of 158 kDa (BGL-I) and 256 kDa (BGL-II) by gel filtration. The isoelectric points for BGL-I and BGL-II were 5.6 and 5-5.2, respectively. Both isozymes displayed relatively broad pH optima with maximum reaction velocities recorded at pH 7.0 for BGL-I and pH 6.2 for BGL-II, and were rapidly denatured at temperatures of 60C and above. Purified BGL-I and BGL-II were both active against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, cellobiose, salicin, and esculin, but only BGL-I was active against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside. BGL-I and BGL-II exhibited Km values for p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside of 90 and 500 M, respectively. Isozyme activities were adversely affected by several reported beta-glucosidase inhibitors, various metal ions, and lignin-derived aromatic acids and aldehydes. Glucose production from microcrystalline cellulose by a commercial cellulase preparation was enhanced by 9.7% in reaction mixtures supplemented with BGL-II.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 980302181

     

     

    TI: Mushroom strains able to grow at high temperatures and low pH values.

    AU: Furlan-SA; Virmond-LJ; Miers-DA; Bonatti-M; Gern-RMM; Jonas-R

    SO: World-Journal-of-Microbiology-and-Biotechnology. 1997, 13: 6, 689-692; 13 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Mycelial growth on different growth media and under different culture conditions was investigated in 7 strains of edible fungi (Stropharia rugoso-annulata, Flammulina velutipes, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Agaricus bitorquis). Mycelial growth rates were higher on WDA (wheat/dextrose/agar) medium than on PDA (potato/dextrose/agar) or MPA (malt/soya peptone/agar) media in all strains investigated. Most of the strains had higher growth rates at 30C than at 20 or 25? L. edodes maintained high growth rates at low pH (pH 4.0), and S. rugoso-annulata and P. ostreatus had high growth rates at pH 5.0. Absence of light favoured rapid mycelium development in all the strains tested.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 980303017

     

     

    TI: Lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of edible mushroom fungi.

    AU: Buswell-JA; Cai-YJ; Chang-ST; Peberdy-JF; Fu-SY; Yu-HS

    SO: World-Journal-of-Microbiology-and-Biotechnology. 1996, 12: 5, 537-542; 34 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: One of the most economically-viable processes for the bioconversion of many types of lignocellulosic wastes is represented by edible mushroom cultivation. Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Pleurotus sajor-caju are three important commercially cultivated mushrooms which exhibit varying abilities to utilise different lignocellulosics as growth substrate. Examination of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of the three species show this diversity to be reflected in qualitative variations in the major enzymic determinants (i.e. cellulases, ligninases) required for substrate bioconversion. For example, L. edodes, which is cultivated on highly lignified substrates such as wood or sawdust, produces two extracellular enzymes which have been associated with lignin depolymerisation in other fungi, (manganese peroxidase and laccase). Conversely, V. volvacea, which prefers high cellulose-, low lignin-containing substrates produces a family of cellulolytic enzymes including at least five endoglucanases, five cellobiohydrolases and two beta-glucosidases, but none of the recognised lignin-degrading enzymes.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 971300134

     

     

    TI: Dietary fiber content and composition of some cultivated edible mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia.

    AU: Cheung-PCK

    SO: Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry. 1996, 44: 2, 468-471; 15 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: The mycelia and the caps and stalks of fruiting bodies of 4 edible mushrooms (Lentinus edodes [Lentinula edodes], Lyophyllum shimeji, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea) were analysed for their total dietary fibre (TDF) content according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method and for TDF content and composition according to the Uppsala method. The nonprotein nitrogen attributable to chitin was corrected in the fibre residue obtained with the AOAC method.The TDF contents of all of the mushrooms as measured by the AOAC method were considerably greater than those estimated by using the Uppsala method. Mushroom mycelia had higher TDF values than did the fruiting bodies as measured by both methods. The TDF composition of the mycelia and the TDF composition of the caps and stalks of the mushroom fruiting bodies were similar. Sugar composition reflected that beta-glucans were the major fibre polysaccharide with chitin, hemicelluloses, and polyuronides as minor ones. Notably, one third of the total sugar in the TDF of the mycelium of L. shimeji was galactose.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 961404447

     

     

    TI: Effect of spawn age and different substrates (compost) on yield of Chinese mushroom.

    AU: Sheikh,-MI; Khan,-BA; Khan,-NA

    SO: Recent advances in biotechnology and applied biology. Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology and International Conference on Applied Biology and Biotechnology, 1-5 August 1988, Hong Kong. 1988, 565-569; 7 ref. Hong Kong; Chinese University Press.

    LA: English

    AB: The growth of Volvariella volvaceae or Chinese mushroom, an edible mushroom of tropical and sub-tropical areas, on various substrates was investigated. The effect of spawn age and substrate on the yield was studied. A cotton waste compost inoculated with old spawn gave the highest yield, followed by paddy straw.

    PT: Unnumbered-Part

    AN: M514084

     

     

    TI: Protein, amino acids and some major and trace elements in Thai and Norwegian mushrooms.

    AU: Surinrut,-P; Julshamn,-K; Njaa,-LR

    SO: Plant-Foods-for-Human-Nutrition. 1987, 37: 2, 117-125; 23 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Six edible Thai mushroom species were analysed for protein, protein digestibility in vitro, amino acids and major and trace elements. The results for protein and amino acids are discussed relative to the contents in Thai rice. The contents of mineral elements showed great variation, in agreement with literature data. Two samples (Hunukao, Tremella fuciformis and Hom, Lentinula edodes) were rich in calcium and one (Phang, Volvariella volvacea) was rich in iron and copper. For comparison results for samples of edible mushrooms obtained in Norway are included.

    GE: Thailand-; Norway-

    PT: Numbered-Part

    AN: N982103

     

     

    TI: Comparison of structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides isolated from Fukurotake, the fruiting body of Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Misaki,-A; Nasu,-M; Sone,-Y; Kishida,-E; Kinoshita,-C

    SO: Agricultural-and-Biological-Chemistry. 1986, 50: 9, 2171-2183; 23 ref., 1 pl.

    LA: English

    AB: An alpha-linked D-manno-D-galactan, glycogen and three branched (1 3)-beta-D-glucans were isolated and their structures are described. One of the glucans, extracted with a cold alkali, showed potent antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180 tumours in mice. The other compounds showed little or no activity.

    GE: Japan-

    PT: Numbered-Part

    AN: C425711

     

     

    TI: Pharmacological studies on certain mushrooms from China.

    AU: Ooi-VEC

    SO: International conference "Perspectives of medicinal mushrooms in health care and nutrition in the 21st Century", Kiev, Ukraine, 12-14 September, 2001. International-Journal-of-Medicinal-Mushrooms. 2001, 3: 4, 341-354; 32 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: This article focuses mainly on biopharmacological studies of selected Chinese medicinal mushrooms, namely the immunomodulation and antitumour activity of Tricholoma giganteum, blood pressure lowering action and mechanism of Volvariella volvacea and the liver protective effect of Trametes versicolor [Coriolus versicolor]. A polysaccharide-protein complex (PSPC) isolated from the culture filtrates of T. giganteum inhibited the growth of solid Sarcoma 180 in mice, with no sign of toxicity. PSPC showed immunomodulating action in vivo. It restored and increased phagocytic function of peritoneal exudate cells (macrophages) of the tumour-bearing mice. It also exhibited indirect cytotoxicity against P815 and L929 by activating macrophages to release the mediators, such as nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The direct cytotoxicity of PSPC was observed in PU5-1.8, H3B, HL-60 and melanoma cell lines. The antiproliferative activity against PU5-1.8 cells was strong at 60 g/ml of PSPC. Therefore, the antitumour activity of PSPC might be due to both host-mediated immunomodulating action and direct cytotoxicity to cancer cells. A fraction isolated from the fruiting bodies of Volvariella volvacea (VE), with a molecular mass of about 10 kDa, was heat stable and resistant to trypsin digestion. The blood pressure changes produced by the extract alone or in the presence of various specific agonists or antagonists were investigated. An intravenous injection of VE produced a hypotensive effect in normotensive rats with an ED50 of 25 mg dry weight/kg body weight. This hypotensive effect of VE was attenuated or blunted in the presence of hexamethonium, phentolamine, pyrilamine and cimetidine suggesting the involvement of the alpha-adrenergic component of the autonomic system and/or histaminergic stimulation. The contractile response could be inhibited by the antagonists of serotonin and alpha-adrenoceptor, ketanserin and phentolamine, respectively. It is likely that VE contained serotonin-like substances because the mechanism of action of VE was similar to that of serotonin. The protective effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) of Trametes versicolor on hepatotoxicity were investigated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced and paracetamol (APAP)-induced liver injury in the rat as the chemical hepatitis models. A toxic dose of CCl4 (1.25 ml/kg) raised the levels of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and that of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) in the experimental rats. PSP significantly reduced the elevated levels of both the SGPT and SGOT in rats exposed to CCl4. Similarly, a single oral dose of 1.0 g/kg of APAP was able to produce significantly elevated the levels of SGPT and SGOT. Intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg/kg of PSP could significantly reduce the APAP-induced acute elevation in the levels of SGPT and SGOT in rats. PSP probably acts to prevent the fall of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) through some GSH-dependent enzymes and preserve the structural integrity of the cellular membrane of hepatocytes, or probably protect paracetamol-induced liver injury through their antioxidant properties acting as a scavenger of free radicals even at low levels of GSH.

    GE: China-

    PT: Journal-article; Conference-paper

    AN: 20023035597

     

     

    TI: Studies on the padi mushroom (Volvariella volvacea). V. Performance of single-basidiospore isolates.

    AU: Graham-KM

    SO: Malaysian-Agricultural-Research. 1975, 4: 1, 31-36; 1 fig.; 8 ref.

    LA: English

    LS: Malay

    AB: A wide range of cultural characteristics and yielding ability was observed in single-spore isolates from 5 cultures of V. volvacea; a selected isolate from a Hong Kong culture outyielded the parent culture by about 125%, and one from a Sarawak culture outyielded its parent by about 199%. [For previous part see HcA 36, 467.]

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 760341126

     

     

    TI: Cytolytic toxins of basidiomycetes.

    AU: Seeger-R

    SO: Anon. : The 6th International Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins, Uppsala, August 1979. Toxicon. 1979, 17: 165; 6 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Phallolysin from Amanita phalloides, volvatoxin from Volvariella volvacea, flammutoxin from Flammulina velutipes, rubescenslysin from A. rubescens and pleurotolysin from Pleurotus ostreatus have been isolated and show direct haemolytic activity. These toxins are labile proteins and thought unlikely to be involved in human mushroom poisoning.

    PT: Abstract-only

    AN: 791359869

     

     

    TI: The production of extracellular endo-alpha-mannanase by the mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Khowala,-S; Sengupta,-S

    SO: Canadian-Journal-of-Microbiology. 1984, 30: 5, 657-662; 14 ref.

    LA: English

    LS: French

    PT: Numbered-Part

    AN: C232247

     

     

    TI: Mycelial protein production from agroindustrial wastes.

    AU: Kundu,-RB; Mitra,-S; Nandi,-B

    SO: Journal-of-Mycopathological-Research. 1990, 28: 1, 81-88; 14 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Mycelial biomass and mycoprotein production of Volvariella volvacea was studied in varying pH conditions, with various nitrogen sources and with various thiamine concn. Sawdust and rice straw dust were used as carbon sources. Growth was enhanced by enrichment with nitrogen and thiamine. Opt. C:N ratios and concn of the nitrogen sources also promoted growth and protein production.

    PT: Numbered-Part

     

     

    TI: Production of cellulases and hemicellulases by the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Cai-YJ; Buswell-JA; Chang-ST

    SO: Mycological-Research. 1994, 98: 9, 1019-1024; 1 pl.; 29 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), Avicelase and beta-glucosidase production was monitored in submerged cultures of 2 strains (V 14 and V 34) of V. volvacea grown on Avicel. All 3 cellulolytic enzymes were detectable in culture supernatants, although levels of CMCase and Avicelase were considerably higher in cultures of strain V14. beta-Glucosidase activity was also observed in mycelial extracts of both fungal strains. Addition of 0.2% Tween 80 to cultures markedly enhanced extracellular cellulase activity, especially in strain V 34. Cellulases, together with xylanase and both intra- and extracellular beta-xylosidase, were also recorded in cultures of V. volvacea V 34 grown on paddy straw.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 950304730

     

     

    TI: Alteration of beta-D-glucan from edible mushroom after injection into mouse peritoneal cavity.

    AU: Sone-Y; Shibata-S; Kishida-E; Misaki-A

    SO: Journal-of-Nutritional-Science-and-Vitaminology. 1994, 40: 4, 335-341; 12 ref.

    LA: English

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 951401015

     

     

    TI: Cardiovascular active substances from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Chiu-KW; Lam-AHW; Pang-PKT

    SO: Phytotherapy-Research. 1995, 9: 2, 93-99; 13 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: An aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of V. volvacea was administered i.v. to normotensive rats. Blood pressure changes produced by the extract alone or in the presence of various drugs were studied. The effects of the extract on the kidney function of water-loaded rats and on isolated tissue preparations of the tail artery and right atrium were also examined. The extract produced a hypotensive effect in rats, which was attenuated or blunted in the presence of hexamethonium, phentolamine, pyrilamine and cimetidine, suggesting the involvement of the alpha-adrenergic component of the autonomic system and/or histaminergic stimulation. No increase in urinary excretion nor sodium diuresis was observed following administration of the extract. The extract induced positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on isolated right atria and induced contraction of isolated tail artery strips. This latter contractile response was inhibited by serotonin and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, ketanserin and phentolamine, respectively. Partial purification of the extract revealed that the active substances had MWs between 8000 and 12 000. These substances were heat stable and resistant to trypsin digestion. It is concluded that V. volvacea might contain serotonin-like substances.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 950310215

     

     

    TI: Production of cellulases and hemicellulases by the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Cai-YJ; Buswell-JA; Chang-ST

    SO: Mycological-Research. 1994, 98: 9, 1019-1024; 1 pl.; 29 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), Avicelase and beta-glucosidase production was monitored in submerged cultures of 2 strains (V 14 and V 34) of V. volvacea grown on Avicel. All 3 cellulolytic enzymes were detectable in culture supernatants, although levels of CMCase and Avicelase were considerably higher in cultures of strain V14. beta-Glucosidase activity was also observed in mycelial extracts of both fungal strains. Addition of 0.2% Tween 80 to cultures markedly enhanced extracellular cellulase activity, especially in strain V 34. Cellulases, together with xylanase and both intra- and extracellular beta-xylosidase, were also recorded in cultures of V. volvacea V 34 grown on paddy straw.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 950304730

     

     

    TI: Cardiovascular active substances from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.

    AU: Chiu-KW; Lam-AHW; Pang-PKT

    SO: Phytotherapy-Research. 1995, 9: 2, 93-99; 13 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: An aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of V. volvacea was administered i.v. to normotensive rats. Blood pressure changes produced by the extract alone or in the presence of various drugs were studied. The effects of the extract on the kidney function of water-loaded rats and on isolated tissue preparations of the tail artery and right atrium were also examined. The extract produced a hypotensive effect in rats, which was attenuated or blunted in the presence of hexamethonium, phentolamine, pyrilamine and cimetidine, suggesting the involvement of the alpha-adrenergic component of the autonomic system and/or histaminergic stimulation. No increase in urinary excretion nor sodium diuresis was observed following administration of the extract. The extract induced positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on isolated right atria and induced contraction of isolated tail artery strips. This latter contractile response was inhibited by serotonin and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, ketanserin and phentolamine, respectively. Partial purification of the extract revealed that the active substances had MWs between 8000 and 12 000. These substances were heat stable and resistant to trypsin digestion. It is concluded that V. volvacea might contain serotonin-like substances.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 950310215

     

     

    TI: Sorption of Heavy metals by four basidiomycetous fungi.

    AU: Dey-S; Rao-PRN; Bhattacharyya-BC; Bandyopadhyay-M

    SO: Bioprocess-Engineering. 1995, 12: 5, 273-277; 26 ref.

    LA: English

    AB: Biosorptions of Pb2+, Cr6+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ were investigated, with special emphasis on lead, using live and dead fungal mycelia. Of the four fungi, namely Polyporus ostreiformis, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the last one was found to be most effective in Pb2+ removal. Total biosorption was effected in 6 days up to the Pb2+ concn of 6 mg/litre, with a specific uptake of 1.33 mg pB2+/g dry cell mass. The removal of other three metals varied between 28.8-73.3% from a medium containing 4 mg/litre of each of the metals.

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 951304337

     

     

    TI: Antitumor active protein-containing glycans from the Chinese mushroom Songshan Lingzhi, Ganoderma tsugae mycelium.

    AU: Zhang-Jie; Wang-GuanYing; Li-Hang; Zhuang-Cun; Mizuno-T; Ito-H; Mayuzumi-H; Okamoto-H; Li-Jingxuan; Zhang-J; Wang-G; Li-W; Zhuang-C; Li-J

    SO: Bioscience,-Biotechnology-and-Biochemistry. 1994, 58: 7, 1202-1205; 8 ref.

    LA: English

    GE: China-

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 950317531

     

     

    TI: Antitumor polysaccharides from a Chinese mushroom, "Yuhuangmo", the fruiting body of Pleurotus citrinopileatus [cultivated in China].

    AU: Zhang-Jie; Wang-GuanYing; Li-Hang; Zhuang-Cun; Mizuno-T; Ito-H; Suzuki-C; Okamoto-H; Li-JingXuan; Zhang-J; Wang-G; Li-H; Zhuang-C; Li-J

    SO: Bioscience,-Biotechnology-and-Biochemistry. 1994, 58: 7, 1195-1201; 3 pl.; 7 ref.

    LA: English

    GE: China-

    PT: Journal-article

    AN: 950317530

    TI: Medicinally useful effects and composition of edible fungi.

    OT: Medizinisch nutzbare Wirkungen und Inhaltsstoffe von Speisepilzen.

    AU: Eisenhut,-R; Fritz,-D

    SO: Gartenbauwissenschaft. 1991, 56: 6, 266-270; 52 ref., 1 pl.

    LA: German

    LS: English

    AB: From a review of the literature, the medicinal properties of edible fungi are surveyed. These include effects on tumours, hypercholesterolaemia, viruses, the central nervous system, allergies and thrombosis. The species covered include Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia sp., Calvatia gigantea, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus sp., Pholiota sp., Tremella fuciformis, Tricholoma sp., Volvariella volvacea, Coprinus comatus, Lentinus [Lentinula] edodes, Hericium erinaceus, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus umbellatus and Tricholoma populinum.

    PT: Numbered-Part

    AN: C182673

     
     
    [ 技术搜索 ]  [ 加入收藏 ]  [ 告诉好友 ]  [ 打印本文 ]  [ 违规举报 ]  [ 关闭窗口 ]

     
    0条 [查看全部]  相关评论

     
    推荐图文
    推荐技术
    点击排行
     

    最新专题

     
    易菇网
    产品检索: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
    中国菌物学会单位会员  中国食用菌协会理事单位会员  深圳市互联网技术应用协会单位会员  深圳市电子商务协会单位会员  |官方微博  
    运营单位经营资质  中国农业百强网站证书  双软认证证书  软件著作权证书   出版物经营许可证号:新出发书刊字第司字OV-060号  食品经营许可证号:JY14201180010720
    Copyright 2010-2018 EMUSHROOM.NET All Rights Reserved 粤ICP备09220136号 Processed in 1,539,601,064.651 second(s), 19 queries, Memory 2.04 M

    粤公网安备 44030402001214号